Context and Motivation
The Web has become the primary means of dissemination of digital information, making use especially of the publication and interconnection of documents and later as a powerful channel of communication and relationship through social networks. Moreover, established itself as the front-end for data access, dynamically published through applications developed especially for this environment. However, these data are still in silos, where little or no interconnection and sharing of resources are committed. As an example, take the large amount of government data available on the Web, generated from the many e-government initiatives and open government, defending the broad dissemination of information to citizens and organizations. However, consumption and reuse that data set is still difficult, given their interfaces just meant to query or ad-hoc extraction, besides the high costs and problems involved in data analysis. In this sense, the initiatives of Linked Open Data (LOD) propose the use of open standards, supported by the W3C, to display data on the Web through simple principles, inspired by the success of the 'Web of Documents', involving standardization of semantics for behind the data. LOD uses Semantic Web technologies to publish structured data on the Web and create links between data from different data sources.
1. Use URIs as names for things
2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
4. Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.
Linked Data has attracted the attention of government agencies, where eco-systems of cooperation between government and population can be created through the publication of data on the Web in a standardized way. Transparency in the use of public resources and maximizing the return on public government data, through collaboration with the population arise with first use cases in Linked Data. Additionally, as many sectors of the Government will provide data as Linked Data, is expected to further integration between the different databases, reducing the barriers to collaboration and the reuse of data in new contexts within the government. In summary, Linked Data leverages an improvement in governance in some dimensions, including: (1) greater accessibility of data for managers and decision makers, (2) decreasing the distance between public services and users, allowing an increasing dialogue and collaboration between these parties, (3) increase transparency in the use of public resources.
The creation of tools to support this type of initiative is the focus of this proposal. In a second phase of the project would be covered a wider experimentation and organ involvement data providers in the publication of its resources in the form of Linked Data.
Initiatives of this kind have begun to take shape in other countries. Interesting examples are the British Government, the United States and Spain. In 2009, the British government began to adopt Linked Data as official standard for publication of public domain data, it is expected that data on education, justice, finance, among others, are increasingly interlinked and made available following this pattern. During the elections of May 2010, British authorities were encouraged to publish the results of the ballot boxes in the form of Linked Data (http://openelectiondata.org/). Applications developed by external agencies to the Government, based on data already available, it can be found. In turn, a decentralized manner, public data in the United States and Spain are being published as Linked Data.
Initiatives such as the Data-Gov Wiki, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and the GeoLinkedData Project of University of Madrid, is also intended to catalyze the use of Linked Data, transforming public government data, available in several formats for standards of Linked Data . In particular, the initiative of the Asociación Española de Linked Data (AELID), aims to stimulate research in Linked data in Spain and Europe, besides creating a network of researchers in order to foster the exchange of knowledge and experience in the subject. Teachers Asuncion Gomez-Perez and Oscar Corcho, coordinators of this association, in a recent visit to Brazil, emphasized their interest in collaborating with similar initiatives in our country. The European project "LOD Around The Clock (LATC) Support Action (http://latc-project.eu/) was also recently approved to support institutions and people in publishing and consumption of Linked Open Data.
The goal is to build an initial infrastructure to support the creation of public government data repositories using standards of Linked Data. For this, a set of applications will be developed with the objective of providing a set of basic services: transformation, curing, publication, query and research data.
The project aims to create tools and associated guidelines for exposure, interconnection and sharing of data resources in the form of Linked Open Data, offering an environment that is especially simple to be used by stakeholders to make available its data resources and involve them other existing resources, encouraging the publication of data on the Web. Thus are expected features of this tool import mechanisms, cleaning, treatment, inter-relationships with resources on the Web, annotation and reference to mechanisms for terminology (ontologies). Also includes the creation of and interest group mobilization for support and encouragement to the initiative of Linked Open Data in Brazil and its insertion in the setting of open data interconnected world.
Justification and Benefits
The provision of planned services brings the potential to catalyze the standardization of public government data in Brazil. The range of services offered have users in both cycles of production and consumption data.
Typical users data producers include:
1. Governmental Organizations: In this field are any sectors including government, producers of data of public interest at any administrative level (local, state and federal). Examples of such organizations include IBGE, Instituto Pereira Passos, Court of Audit, Ministries, Municipal and state secretaries.
2. Non-governmental organizations: NGOs with interest in organizing and publish public data. Example of such organizations include the NGO “Transparencia Brasil”.
3. Universities and Research Institutes: Included in this field researchers with interest in disclosure of data / scientific products.
Data consumers users include:
1. Governmental Organizations: Government sectors can use data generated by other public areas under the intersectoral collaboration. Data can be used for purposes of audit and surveillance.
2. Non-governmental organizations: NGOs focused on the analysis and audit of government data.
3. Universities and research institutes, government or scientific data can be used as input for research.
4. Private companies: Companies interested in generating data applications on the public interest. Media outlets.
5. Population: Typically end users accessing the products (applications, reports, analysis) of the other actors.